Discovering The Language Spoken In Bangladesh: Exploring Bengali And Other Dialects

A group of women in traditional attire engaging in lively conversation at a colorful Bangladeshi market.

Ever wondered what language is spoken in the culturally-rich nation of Bangladesh? It’s Bengali or Bangla, a vibrant and expressive language that has more than 100,000 unique words! Get ready to dive into an immersive linguistic journey where we’ll explore not just Bengali, but also other dialects prevalent in this South Asian paradise.

Keep reading, you’re about to discover how language shapes the heart and soul of Bangladesh – one word at a time.

Key Takeaways

  • Bengali, also known as Bangla, is the official language of Bangladesh and is spoken by 99% of its population.
  • Besides Bengali, there are several other languages spoken in Bangladesh, including ethnic minority languages like Chakma, Marma, Santali, Garo, Khasi, and Bawm.
  • The linguistic diversity in Bangladesh reflects its rich cultural heritage and includes languages from different language families such as Indo-Aryan, Austroasiatic, Dravidian, and Tibeto-Burman.

Overview of the Languages Spoken in Bangladesh

A diverse group of people from Bangladesh representing various linguistic backgrounds, surrounded by cultural symbols.

Bangladesh is a linguistically diverse country, with several languages spoken across its regions including Indo-Aryan languages, Non-Indo-Aryan languages, Austroasiatic languages, Dravidian languages, Tibeto-Burman languages, and other indigenous and foreign influenced tongues.

Indo-Aryan languages

A diverse group of people speaking Indo-Aryan languages in a bustling cityscape, captured in a clear and photorealistic image.

Indo-Aryan languages are spoken a lot in Bangladesh. Bengali is the most common of these. It’s also called Bangla and is the main tongue in this country. Other tongues from this group are Asamiya, Oriya, Punjabi, Gujarati, and Marathi.

Sylheti is another language you will hear a lot in eastern Bangladesh and parts of India like Assam. Indo-Aryan languages aren’t just important here but all over the world as well!

Non-Indo-Aryan languages

A photo of tribal people from the hills of Bangladesh preserving their unique languages and cultures.

Some people in Bangladesh speak Non-Indo-Aryan languages. These tongues are not like Bengali or Hindi. They have different roots and words. These languages come from three big groups: Austroasiatic, Dravidian, and Tibeto-Burman.

Many tribes in the hills of Bangladesh use these kinds of languages. People living in cities may not know them well. Yet, they hold a lot of old traditions and stories. Learning them can be hard but it is always fun!

Austroasiatic languages

The image features individuals from various Austroasiatic-speaking regions wearing traditional clothing in a bustling cityscape.Austroasiatic languages are in use across South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. About 150 different tongues make up this language family. These are split into two big parts: Mon-Khmer and Munda.

You might know the Mon-Khmer group from a popular language like Vietnamese. On the other hand, Munda has dialects spoken over east India. In countries like Bangladesh, these languages play an important role, adding to its diverse linguistic makeup.

Dravidian languages

A group of people in traditional Dravidian attire, dancing in front of a colorful backdrop.

Dravidian languages are spoken mainly in southern India but can also be found in central India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. These languages are spoken by over 215 million people in countries like India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

In West Bengal, a state in India near Bangladesh’s border, there is a significant population that speaks a Dravidian language. The Bengali dialect has also been influenced by Dravidian and Kol languages.

Additionally, two Dravidian languages called Kurukh and Sauria Paharia are spoken by indigenous communities in western parts of Bangladesh.

Tibeto-Burman languages

A young girl from the Hani tribe is captured in traditional clothing surrounded by lush greenery.

There are several Tibeto-Burman languages spoken in Bangladesh. These languages include Burmese, Tibetan, Bai, Yi (Lolo), Karen, Meitei, Hani, and Jingpo. In total, there are around 50 Tibeto-Burman languages.

Some of the major branches of Tibeto-Burman include Tibetic, Burmish, Karenic, Rung, Tani, Qiang, Bodo–Garo, Konyak Naga , Meitei , and Kuki-Chin.

Other languages

A diverse group of people from various backgrounds gather in a bustling cityscape, surrounded by multilingual signs.

In addition to Bengali, the national language of Bangladesh, there are several other languages spoken in the country. English is widely spoken and serves as an official second language.

Hindi, although a minority language, is also present in certain communities. Moreover, various tribal languages are spoken by different ethnic groups across Bangladesh. This linguistic diversity can be attributed to historical influences and contact with neighboring regions and dialects.

Bengali: The National Language of Bangladesh

A colorful Bengali alphabet chart hangs on a classroom wall in a vibrant and bustling atmosphere.Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh and holds great importance in the country’s linguistic history and development.

Indigenous languages in Bangladesh

Official language and its importance

A diverse group of people join hands in front of a symbol of unity.

Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh and holds great importance in the country. It is not only the national language but also serves as a unifying factor among its diverse population.

Bengali is spoken by 99% of the people in Bangladesh, making it a crucial aspect of their daily lives. The significance of Bengali can be seen in various aspects such as governance, education, or even cultural practices.

From official documents to educational institutions, Bengali plays a vital role in preserving Bangladeshi identity and heritage. Its status as an official language helps maintain unity and communication within the country, fostering a sense of belonging among its citizens.

Linguistic history and development

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Bengali, the national language of Bangladesh, has a rich linguistic history and development. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of languages and is influenced by other language families prevalent in South Asia, like Dravidian.

Bengali can be traced back to the Indo-European language family, with a history dating back to 3500 B.C. It has evolved separately from Sanskrit and has its own unique characteristics.

Over time, linguistic purism has influenced the development of Bengali in Bangladesh, while language contact has also played a role in shaping it.

Dialects and variations

The Bengali language spoken in Bangladesh has various dialects and variations. Here are some of them:

  • Eastern Bangali: Widely spoken in regions such as Khulna, Barisal, Dhaka, and Mymensingh.
  • Western Bangali: Spoken in areas like Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Dinajpur.
  • Northern Bangali: Used in the northern parts of Bangladesh, including the districts of Bogra, Pabna, and Tangail.
  • Southern Bangali: Found in the southern regions like Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar.

Other Languages Spoken in Bangladesh

A joyful photo capturing the diversity of children in Bangladesh, showcasing their different appearances and outfits.

Aside from Bengali, the national language of Bangladesh, there are numerous other languages spoken in the country. From ethnic minority languages to non-Indigenous dialects, explore the linguistic diversity of Bangladesh.

Read more to uncover the richness of these lesser-known languages and their significance in Bangladeshi culture.

The Sound of the Bengali language (UDHR, Numbers, Greetings, Words & Sample Text)

Ethnic minority languages

Bangladesh is home to a rich diversity of ethnic minority languages. These languages are spoken by different indigenous communities across the country. Here are some of the ethnic minority languages found in Bangladesh:

  • Chakma
  • Marma
  • Santali
  • Garo
  • Khasi
  • Bawm

Other non-Indigenous languages

Other languages spoken in Bangladesh include:

  • English: As a former British colony, English is widely spoken and used as a medium of instruction in schools and higher education.
  • Arabic: Bangladeshi Muslims often learn Arabic to read and understand the Quran, Islam’s holy book.
  • Persian: Persian has influenced the Bengali language through literature and historical connections.
  • Urdu: Urdu, a South Asian language, is also spoken by some communities in Bangladesh.

The Importance of Language in Bangladeshi Culture

A diverse group of students studying in a vibrant classroom setting.

Language plays a vital role in Bangladeshi culture, shaping their identity, religious practices, and education. Explore how language is intertwined with every aspect of Bangladeshi society.

Read more about it!

🌟 Learn Bengali - Dive into the Richness of Bangla Language and Culture! 📚

Language and cultural identity

Language is deeply intertwined with cultural identity in Bangladesh. The Bangla language, also known as Bengali, plays a crucial role in shaping the nation’s culture and heritage. It serves as a powerful symbol of national pride and unity.

More than 98 percent of the population speaks Bangla as their first language, highlighting its significance to the people’s sense of belonging and self-expression. The language movement, known as “bhasha andolon,” which fought for linguistic rights, further emphasizes how language has become an integral part of cultural identity in Bangladesh.

Celebrating events like Bangladesh Mother Language Day highlights the importance of preserving and protecting both the Bangla language and its rich cultural heritage.

Language and religious practices

Language plays a crucial role in the religious practices and cultural identity of the people in Bangladesh. The majority of the population follows Islam, and Arabic is an important language used for prayers and religious texts.

Additionally, Bengali, being the national language, is also widely spoken by Muslims for everyday communication. This intertwining of language and religion creates a strong bond within the community, allowing individuals to express their faith effectively.

Language in education

In Bangladesh, language plays a significant role in education. English is used and taught in Education Policy and Planning (LPP) in the country. However, implementing a multilingual language-in-education policy does pose some challenges.

The article explores the situation of English language education in Bangladesh and discusses elements of a language policy. This highlights how important language is when it comes to educating the people of Bangladesh.

Religion and Language in Bangladesh

A vibrant, scenic photograph of a mosque surrounded by green fields with diverse people and outfits.

Religion plays a significant role in shaping the language landscape of Bangladesh, with interfaith interactions influencing linguistic practices.

The role of religion in shaping language

Religion plays a significant role in shaping the language spoken in Bangladesh. The majority of people in Bangladesh follow Islam, which influences the linguistic landscape of the country.

Islamic religious practices and teachings have contributed to the development and usage of certain words, phrases, and expressions within the Bengali language. Additionally, religion is tied to cultural identity, and as such, it influences how language is used in different contexts.

Whether it’s through religious rituals or everyday conversations, religion has a strong impact on shaping the language spoken by people in Bangladesh.

Interfaith language interactions

Interfaith language interactions in Bangladesh play a crucial role in promoting understanding and acceptance among different religious communities. Through these interactions, people of different faiths can come together and engage in conversations that break stereotypes and suspicions towards other religions.

The medium through which these interactions take place is the Bangla language, which allows for effective communication and connection between individuals from diverse religious backgrounds.

By engaging in interfaith language interactions, people have the opportunity to learn about each other’s beliefs, traditions, and values, fostering an environment of respect and harmony within society.

Exploring the Bengali Dialects

A diverse group of Bengali villagers engaged in a lively conversation in a traditional setting.

Bengali, the national language of Bangladesh, is spoken in various dialects with unique features influenced by cultural differences within the country.

Major dialects and their features

There are several major dialects of Bengali spoken in Bangladesh. These dialects have unique features that set them apart from each other. Here are some of the major dialects and their features:

  1. Eastern Bangali dialect: This is the most widely spoken dialect in Bangladesh, used in regions like Khulna, Barisal, Dhaka, and Mymensingh. It is known for its nasalization of vowels and distinct pronunciation of certain consonants.
  2. Chittagonian dialect: Spoken in the Chittagong region, this dialect has many vocabulary differences compared to standard Bengali. It also has its own unique intonation patterns.
  3. Rajshahi dialect: Commonly spoken in Rajshahi and its surrounding areas, this dialect is characterized by the use of retroflex sounds and some distinctive vocabulary.
  4. Sylheti dialect: Primarily spoken in the Sylhet region, this dialect has significant influence from languages like Assamese and Manipuri. It also has a distinctive tonal quality.
  5. Rangpuri dialect: Used in the northern part of Bangladesh, especially in Rangpur and Dinajpur districts, this dialect has similarities with languages spoken across India’s border.
  • The Eastern Bangali dialect is the most widely spoken dialect of Bengali language, spoken across regions such as Khulna, Barisal, Dhaka, and Mymensingh.
  • The four main dialects of Bengali correspond to the ancient political divisions of the Bengali-speaking world – Radha (West Bengal proper), Pundra or Varendra (North Bengal and West Bengal), Kamarupa (Assam), and Pracya or Magadhan (Bihar Jharkhand ,and Orissa).

Cultural influences on dialects

Cultural factors have played a significant role in shaping the dialects spoken in Bangladesh. The country’s diverse ethnic and cultural groups, such as Bengalis, Chakmas, and Santals, have unique customs and traditions that influence their language use.

Additionally, historical influences from neighboring regions have contributed to linguistic variations within the Bengali dialects. For example, the Odia language has influenced certain aspects of Bengali dialects, while similarities can be found between some Bihar and Orissa dialects.

Furthermore, languages from other South Asian language families like Dravidian have also left an impact on Bengali. These cultural influences add richness and diversity to the linguistic landscape of Bangladesh.

Other Languages Used in Education

A diverse classroom with a stack of books in different languages, showcasing a bustling educational atmosphere.

Languages used in higher education in Bangladesh include English, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Bilingual education is also common in the country.

Languages used in higher education

Bilingual education in Bangladesh

Bilingual education in Bangladesh aims to create a more inclusive and relevant education system. The goal is to provide students with opportunities to learn both Bengali, the national language, and English, which is promoted through language planning initiatives.

In public schools, Bengali serves as the medium of instruction. However, there are efforts being made to implement communicative English language curriculum reform in secondary schools.

This reform is currently being studied in four schools as part of an ongoing initiative. The focus is on improving English proficiency among students while ensuring that they maintain strong skills in their native language, Bengali.

Foreign Influences on the Language Landscape of Bangladesh

A diverse group of people engage in conversations surrounded by cultural symbols in a bustling cityscape.

Foreign influences have played a significant role in shaping the language landscape of Bangladesh, with English, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu having notable impacts.


English is also spoken in Bangladesh, especially in urban areas and among educated groups. It has been influenced by foreign languages like Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Globalization has played a role in the prominence of English language use in the country.

However, there is ongoing debate about its impact on Bangladeshi culture and potential recolonization through increased reliance on English and strategies from organizations like the World Bank.


Arabic is an important language spoken in Bangladesh. It is a Central Semitic language that is closely related to Aramaic and Hebrew. The distinct form of Arabic, known as Fusha or Classical Arabic, is widely used in religious texts and literature.

Due to its association with Islam, Arabic vocabulary has been incorporated into Bengali. This influence can be seen in words related to religion and Islamic practices in the Bangladeshi language.


Persian has had a significant influence on the Bengali language in Bangladesh. When Persian and Turkish people migrated to India in 1206, they brought with them their language, introducing Persian words and expressions into Bengali.

Additionally, Bengali exhibits diversity influenced by various languages, including Persian. It contains loanwords from Portuguese, English, Arabic, Persian, and Hindi as a result of historical and cultural interactions.

The religion of Islam followed by the majority in Bangladesh has also contributed to the influence of Persian language and culture. The historical impact highlights the significance of teaching and learning Persian in Bangladesh’s language landscape.


Urdu, a language spoken by Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh, differs from the Urdu commonly spoken in Pakistan. In Bangladesh, there are two dialects of Urdu: Dhakaiya Urdu and Standard Pakistani Urdu.

Dhakaiya Urdu is influenced by the version spoken by Bengali Muslims in Old Dhaka. Although primarily spoken by a minority group, Urdu has had an impact on the Bengali language in Bangladesh.

It has influenced pronouns and verbs and over 200 Urdu words have been incorporated into Bengali. Unfortunately, due to the perception that Urdu is associated with Pakistan, individuals who speak it face discrimination and hostilities in Bangladesh.


A diverse group of people immersed in cultural activities, showcasing traditional clothing and artifacts.

In conclusion, exploring the language spoken in Bangladesh reveals the significance of Bengali as the national language. With its deep roots and various dialects, Bengali holds cultural importance and plays a crucial role in religious practices and education.

The linguistic diversity in Bangladesh reflects the country’s rich heritage and influences from foreign languages like English, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Understanding these languages enhances our understanding of Bangladeshi culture and fosters interfaith interactions within the community.


1. What language is spoken in Bangladesh?

The main language spoken in Bangladesh is Bengali.

2. Are there dialects of the Bengali Language?

Yes, many people in Bangladesh speak different dialects of Bengali.

3. Is English spoken in Bangladesh?

While Bengali is the most common, some people also speak English in Bangladesh.

4. How can you learn to speak Bengali?

There are books and online courses that can help you understand and speak Bengali.

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